Affordability, Reliability, Safety, Maintainability,
Operability, Complexity, Sustainability & Responsiveness
Business Models and Acquisition
Mail Act of 1934 - Aerospace history can provide
us some inspiration on this subject. The air
transportation world in the early 1930s ran into
the ethical problems that can often occur in
completely vertical business arrangements with a
narrow set of players. The issue was finally
resolved through anti-trust legislation in the
Airmail Act of 1934."
Affordability, Operability, Design for Operations
It is envisioned that dramatically safer, lower cost, and higher flight
rate access to space is possible by applying the wealth of experience
gained from human space flight launch operations. Shuttle launch
operations, particularly the world’s only reusable space plane elements,
the orbiters, have accumulated a vast set of ideas, lessons learned,
insight and “design for ops” experience.
"Designers of space launch
systems should be cognizant of the impact of their design
assumptions on operational characteristics. Operational metrics
such as turnaround time, recurring cost, and headcount are
critical factors for the future viability of such systems. The
results presented here are from a study that seeks to determine
in what manner design approaches can improve the operability of
future space launch systems. This is accomplished by applying
such operational approaches at the start of the concept design
A.C. Charania, J. Wallace, Dr. B.
St. Germain, Dr. J. Olds, SpaceWorks Engineering Inc., "Design for
Operations Final Report," Prepared for NASA,
Kennedy Space Center, March 16, 2004.
A.C. Charania, Jon Wallace, Dr. John R. Olds, Edgar Zapata, "Analysis
Method for Quantifying Vehicle Design Goals," NASA Tech Briefs
Technical Support Package and International Astronautical
DATA: The Shuttle Root Cause Analysis, 2003-2004.
Responsiveness, Direct Labor
"Prediction is very difficult, especially about the future." -Niels
While scheduling a series
of launches results in a plan that is worked to, system reality involves
uncertainty, variability, and randomness. The long-view question becomes
not "when are we planning to launch", or "how many launches are we
planning for any year". The long view asks "what are the chances we will
launch by a given date" or "what are the chances we will achieve a given
number of launches by a set time in the future".
The Process for Simulation Modeling and
Analysis of Space Shuttle Manifest Options
Shuttle Launch Pad Operations Added Work
Days Post the Delta Launch Site Flight Readiness Review
Carey McCleskey, David Christensen, "Dr. Kurt H.
Debus: Launching a Vision," International Astronautical Federation,
DATA: Aerospace Mission Failure Analysis for
NASA Ames Research Center Design for Safety Initiative,
DATA > Jeff Morton, Mike Nix, NASA MSFC, with
contributions from Doug Morris, Richard Brown, NASA LaRC, "Baseline
Comparative System: Shuttle Systems Mean Time Between Failures,"
For the ".zip" file, contact
edgar.zapata-1 at nasa.gov, NASA Kennedy Space Center
Presentation from the Space Launch Initiative Technology
Contact: Edgar Zapata, NASA Kennedy Space Center