SPACE/LAUNCHERS - Orbital and Planetary Launch Services

Last-modified: $Date: 94/03/01 17:24:38 $

ORBITAL AND PLANETARY LAUNCH SERVICES

Most of the following data comes from _International Reference Guide to Space Launch Systems_ by Steven J. Isakowitz, 1991 edition. The launcher FAQ was compiled and is maintained by Josh Hopkins. His address is jbh55289@uxa.cso.uiuc.edu. Special thanks go to Wales Larrison (wales.larrison@ofa123.fidonet.org) for providing some cost data and the summaries of other programs included at the end.

Notes: * Unless otherwise specified, LEO and polar payloads are for a 100 nm orbit. * Reliablity data generally includes launches through Dec 1990. When applicable, reliability data for a family of vehicles includes launches of types no longer operational. Reliability data is subject to interpretation and is for comparison purposes only.

* Only operational vehicle families are included. Vehicle types which had not yet flown at the time my data was published (or when I wrote this) are marked with an asterisk.

* Data on price is for comparison purposes only. Costs for government vehicles are somewhat meaningless and commercial costs vary from bid to bid.

Vehicle | Payload kg (lbs) | Reliability | Price (nation) | LEO Polar GTO | |

Ariane 35/40 87.5%

(ESA)

  AR40		4,900	   3,900    1,900    1/1	      $65m
       (10,800)	  (8,580)  (4,190)
  AR42P		6,100	   4,800    2,600    1/1	      $67m
       (13,400)	 (10,600)  (5,730)
  AR44P		6,900	   5,500    3,000    0/0 ?	      $70m
       (15,200)	 (12,100)  (6,610)
 AR42L		7,400	   5,900    3,200    0/0 ?	      $90m
       (16,300)	 (13,000)  (7,050)
 AR44LP	8,300	   6,600    3,700    6/6	      $95m
       (18,300)	 (14,500)  (8,160)
  AR44L		9,600	   7,700    4,200    3/4	      $115m
       (21,100)	 (16,900)  (9,260)
* AR5	       18,000	   ???	    6,800    0/0	      $105m
       (39,600)		  (15,000)
        [300nm]

ATLAS

35/40 87.5%p>Atlas 213/245 86.9%

(USA)

  Atlas E	 --	     820       --    15/17	      $45m
 		  (1,800)
  Atlas I	5,580	   4,670    2,250    1/1	      $70m
       (12,300)	 (10,300)  (4,950)
  Atlas II	6,395	   5,400    2,680    0/0	      $75m
       (14,100)	 (11,900)  (5,900)
  Atlas IIA	6,760	   5,715    2,810    0/0	      $85m
       (14,900)	 (12,600) (6,200)
* Atlas IIAS	8,390	   6,805    3,490    0/0	      $115m
       (18,500)	(15,000)  (7,700)

Delta

189/201 94.0%

(USA)

  Delta 6925	3,900	   2,950    1,450   14/14	      $45m
        (8,780)	 (6,490)  (3,190)
  Delta 7925	5,045	   3,830    1,820   1/1		      $50m
       (11,100)	 (8,420)  (4,000)


Energia 2/2 100% (Russia) Energia 88,000 80,000 ??? 2/2 $110m (194,000) (176,000)
H series 22/22 100% (Japan)
* H-2	       10,500	 6,600	   4,000    0/0		      $110m
       (23,000) (14,500)   (8,800)

Kosmos 371/377 98.4% (Russia)

  Kosmos      400 km circular orbit			      $???
       51 degrees - 1400 kg
       83 degrees - 1105 kg

Lockheed Launch Vehicle 0/0

(U.S)

* LLV-1		1,100	   ???	    ???			      $15m ?
(2,400) * LLV-2 1,800 ??? ???
(4,000) * LLV-3 3,600 ??? ???
(8,000)

Long March 23/25 92.0% (China)

* CZ-1D		  720	   ???	     200     0/0	      $10m
        (1,590)		    (440)
  CZ-2C		3,200	 1,750	   1,000     12/12	     $20m
        (7,040)	(3,860)   (2,200)
  CZ-2E		9,200	   ???	   3,370     1/1	     $40m
       (20,300)		  (7,430)
* CZ-2E/HO     13,600	   ???	   4,500     0/0	     $60m
       (29,900)		  (9,900)
  CZ-3		???	   ???	   1,400     6/7	     $33m
 			  (3,100)
* CZ-3A		???	   ???	   2,500     0/0	     $???m
 			  (5,500)
  CZ-4		4,000	   ???	   1,100     2/2	     $???m
        (8,800)		  (2,430)

Pegasus/Taurus 4/4 100%

(USA)


  Pegasus	  455	   365	     125     4/4	     $13.5m
        (1,000)	  (800)     (275)
* Taurus	1,450	 1,180	     375     0/0	     $15m
        (3,200)	(2,600)     (830)

Proton 164/187 87.7% Russia) Proton 20,000 ??? 5,500 164/187 $35-70m (44,100) (12,200)

SCOUT 99/113 87.6%

(USA)


  SCOUT G-1	  270	    210      54      13/13	      $12m
 	 (600)	   (460)    (120)
* Enhanced SCOUT  525	    372      110      0/0	      $15m
        (1,160)	   (820)    (240)

Shavit 2/2 100%
(Israel)

Space Shuttle				     37/38  97.4%
(USA)
  Shuttle/SRB  23,500	   ???	   5,900     37/38	 [I'm not going
       (51,800)		 (13,000)		 to touch the
 						 price issue]
* Shuttle/ASRM 27,100	   ???	   ???	     0/0
       (59,800)
SLV 2/6 33.3%
(India)		(400km)  (900km polar)
  ASLV		  150	    ???      ???     0/2	   $???m
 	 (330)
* PSLV		3,000	  1,000      450     0/0	   $???m
        (6,600)	 (2,200)    (990)
* GSLV		8,000	   ???	   2,500     0/0	   $???m
       (17,600)		  (5,500)

Titan 160/172 93.0% USA)
  Titan II	 ???	  1,905     ???      2/2	    $43m
 		 (4,200)
  Titan III    14,515	  ???	   5,000     2/3	    $158m
       (32,000)		 (11,000)		    [1988$]
  Titan IV/SRM 17,700	 14,100    6,350     3/3	    $315m-$360m
       (39,000)	(31,100) (14,000)
  Titan IV/SRMU 21,640	 18,600    8,620     0/0	    $???m
       (47,700)	(41,000) (19,000)
Vostok 1358/1401 96.9% (Russia) [650km]
  Vostok	4,730	  1,840     ???      ?/149	    $14m
       (10,400)	 (4,060)
  Soyuz		7,000	   ???	    ???      ?/944	    $15m
       (15,400)
  Molniya	1500kg (3300 lbs) in	     ?/258	    $???M
 	Highly eliptical orbit
  Zenit					     12/13  92.3%

(Russia)
  Zenit        13,740	 11,380    4,300     12/13	    $65m
       (30,300)	(25,090)  (9,480)
The following information on other proposed launch systems is
provided by Wales Larrison.  The asterisks mark vehicles which seem most
likely to make it off the drawing board.
  Aerospatiale air launched (France) --study of two-stage launch
        vehicle launched from Airbus-type aircraft. Reported
        capable of 1000 Kg to LEO low-Earth orbit. Used M4
        and M5 solid rocket boosters, and studied for
        European military uses.	No data since early 1992.
        Probably shelved.
   Argentina -- small orbital launcher, derivative of Argentinian
       sounding rocket program.  Some interesting rumors
       that suitable large solids were poured as part of
        secret military ICBM effort under military Junta rule
        several years ago, but program records destroyed when
        civilian government took over.
   Sweden (Bofors/Saab) -- small all solid sounding rocket to use
        Kiruna launch range in northern Sweden.	Probably
        subsumed into IMI effort (Saab is teamed on Orbex).
        No data for several years.
        TRW --  Proposed development of launch vehicle using pressure-fed
       "dumb" boosters.  Studied extensively at TRW in late
       1960's and revived in late 1980's.  Rumors of
        company-funded propulsion tests.  Rumors this is
        being proposed as joint program with GDC or MDC for
        upgrade in MLV-3 proposal effort.  -- Lots of rumors
        but no solid data that this is real program.
*  OrbEx - Small all solid vehicle. "ORBital EXpress".	 Firm
        contract for SDIO MISTI payload launch.	Options for
        another 9 launches.  First launch planned 1994.	Cost
        per launch estimated at $ 10-15 M.  First launch for
        SDIO, MISTI-4 payload, priced at $14.7 M, contract
        signed July 1992. Owned by International Microspace
        Inc. -- partnered with Conatec, Saab, and Bristol
        Aerospace.
   PACASTRO PA-1  - Little data.  Estimate $5-10 M per launch.	All
        solid, very small launcher.  No confirmed customers
        or customer support.  Floating venture capital
        prospectus around.
*  Russian ICBM derivatives -- Several proposed, usually SS-18 or
        SS-25 derivatives.  Would used converted strategic
        ICBMs to launch small payloads.	Bid on several
        international smallsat launchers. Political
        concerns due to use for MCTR and number of launches
        tightly regulated by START treaties and verification
        activities.  Prices discussed are absolute rock-
        bottom.
        [There is also converted SLBM called the "Surf" which
        seems likely to make it off the drawing boards]
   Space Clipper (NPO Yuznoye - Ukraine) - Proposed derivative of
        SS-18 utilizing air-launched ICBM as first stage of
        orbital launcher for small sats.  Used AN-124
        aircraft as carrier. Extensively publicized as part
        of IAF.	500 Kg into LEO. No customers, no contracts.
   SEALAR (Sea Eagle) - Mobile SEA LAunched Rocket.  Supported by
        Navy Research lab funding.   Estimated cost $ 10
        M/launch.  Projected first launch data of 1996
        (dependent upon NRL funding) Bob Truax company.
        Suborbital test planned.
*  Sonda IV (Brazil)- Small orbital launcher derivative of existing
        Brazilian Sonda sounding rocket.  Rumored being
        readied for 1993 launch.  Cost unknown. Obvious
        political issue from MTCR, if used as a launch
        vehicle for US payloads.
   Zefiro (Italy) -  Small launcher derivative of Scout vehicle,
        utilizing new solid booster.  From Gilarini in Italy.
        Cost unknown.  Proposed to be ready for qual flights
        in late 1995.
*  J-1 (Japan) - Small all-solid launcher from NASDA H-2 solid
        boosters combined with M-3S II solids from ISAS
        launcher program. Paper by Tateu Hosomura of Nissan
        Motor Co., Japan's principal solid- booster
        manufacturer, at IAF claimed first flight in mid-
        1995. Capable of 900 kilograms in LEO, with growth to
        2000 Kg.  Believed funded in 1993 NASDA/ISAS budget.
   Aussroc (Australia) - Eventual derivative of small indigenous
        sounding rocket currently being test fired.  Last
        sounding rocket test failed.  Probably 5-10 years
        away for orbital launch attempt if not fully funded
        by national government (currently shared industry/
        university/ government).  Would use old Woomera
        launch range.
   Bristol (Canada) - Proposed small launcher, based upon Black
        Brandt series of sounding rockets.  Proposed
        development program to be shared with Canadian Space
        Agency.	500 lb to LEO class launcher.  Requires
        development of new solid booster by Bristol.
   Capricornia (Spain) - small 3 stage booster.  Reported to be
        capable of 100 Kg in LEO.  Originated by INTA in
        Spain, under $ 30M of developmental funding.  Looking
        for international partners and further financing.
        Potential launch in 1995/1996.
*  COMET/Conestoga -- small all solid vehicle being developed to
        launch the COMET orbital launch/return payload
        system.	First launch planned 1993 from Wallops
        Island.	Estimated launch cost $10-25 M (depending on
        type).
        [As of 7-93 COMET was on indefinate hold due to
        cost overruns. -JBH]

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